Print This Page
From: Intelligence Specialist - Central and Eastern Europe Barrows

Republic of Poland

William Paris

The Republic of Poland

History: Poland’s history began in the middle of the 10th century. During the 18th century Poland was partitioned among Russia, Prussia, and Austria. In 1918, Poland regained independence only to lose it again to Germany and Russia during WWII. After WWII, Poland became a satellite for the Soviet Union. In 1989 and 1990 control of parliament and the presidency would end communist rule in the country. Poland joined NATO in 1990 and the EU in 2004.

Political System: Poland is a parliamentary republic. The Prime Minister of Poland is Mateusz MORAWIECKI and the Chief of State is President Andrzej DUDA. Poland does not recognize dual citizenship.

Economic System and Standing: Poland is the 6th largest economy in the EU. Since 1990 Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization.

Military Strength: Poland is ranked 49th in the world in terms of military spending with 1.99% of their budget. This is just below the NATO treaty amount of 2%. Poland’s military consists of Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces, and Territorial Defense Force. The Territorial Defense Force began recruitment in 2016.

Foreign Military Bases: The United States is considering the placement of Fort Trump in Poland, making it a permanent military base in the country.

Other Capabilities and Assets: Poland has a population of 38,476,269 ranking the country 36th in the world as far as population. Poland has a total military personnel of 184,650 people.

Geographic Location and Features: Poland is located in central Europe and is bordered by 7 countries, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and the Ukraine. Historically Poland has been a center of conflict because of its flat terrain and lack of natural borders.

Political Culture: The Polish government is divided into 3 branches being the executive, legislative, and the judicial branches. The president is elected for a 5-year term.

Internal Strengths: Poland’s strengths include its strong military and its strong economy. Poland has a drive to be militarily strong because of its long history of being occupied by outside forces.

Internal Weaknesses: Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.

Other Internal Characteristics: Poland has strict border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its borders with Belarus and Ukraine. Poland has a large population of Catholics at 87.2%.

Internal Objectives and Capabilities: Poland seeks to improve its quality of life for its people and reduce poverty. The country also works to continue its economic success as well as make changes to improve the environment in which its people live. This includes water quality, resource management and air quality.

Key Institutional Memberships: Poland is a member of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, and the Visegrad Group.

Policy Promotion: Poland is pushing for more military support and presence from the United States in Poland against Russian expansionism.

Policy Detraction: Poland is against the acceptance of refugees from Africa and the Middle East. Poland is a homogenous country meaning it has a high population of native polish people. Poland sees the acceptance of refugees into Poland will lead to social catastrophe.

Allies: The allies of Poland include all 28 other NATO countries. The most significant ally of Poland is the United States.

Adversaries: Russia and Poland have had bad relations in recent years because of Russian expansionism and how Poland views Russia as rebuilding its former dominance in Eastern Europe.

Foreign Policy Objectives: Polish Foreign Policy seeks to aid in anti-terrorism, cooperating with other European nations and have strong relations with the United States to provide security.

Capabilities: Poland has the economic ability to get the United States military support. With this Poland can prevent a possible Russian expansion into Poland.

Obstacles: The EU is an obstacle to Poland in their constant pressure for Poland to accept more refugees. Poland is also a major producer in synthetic drugs for the international market straining relationships with other countries. Poland is also a transportation point for other countries illegal drugs to be moved across Europe from Asia and Latin America.






Leave a Reply